Studying factors affecting success of antimicrobial resistance interventions through the lens of experience: A thematic analysis
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) affects the environment, and animal and human health. Institutions worldwide have applied various measures, some of which have reduced antimicrobial use and AMR. However, little is known about factors influencing the success of AMR interventions. To address this gap, we engaged health professionals, designers, and implementers of AMR interventions in an exploratory study to learn about their experience and factors that challenged or facilitated interventions and the context in which interventions were implemented. Based on participant input, our thematic analysis identified behaviour; institutional governance and management; and sharing and enhancing information as key factors influencing success. Important sub-themes included: correct behaviour reinforcement, financial resources, training, assessment, and awareness of AMR. Overall, interventions were located in high-income countries, the human sector, and were publicly funded and implemented. In these contexts, behaviour patterns strongly influenced success, yet are often underrated or overlooked when designing AMR interventions. Improving our understanding of what contributes to successful interventions would allow for better designs of policies that are tailored to specific contexts. Exploratory approaches can provide encouraging results in complex challenges, as made evident in our study. Remaining challenges include more engagement in this type of study by professionals and characterisation of themes that influence intervention outcomes by context.
Citation: Graells, T., I.A. Lambraki, M. Cousins, A. Léger, K. Lillepold, P. J. G. Henriksson, M. Troell, C.A. Carson, E.J. Parmley, S.E. Majowicz, D. Wernli, and P.S. Jørgensen. 2022. Studying factors affecting success of antimicrobial resistance interventions through the lens of experience: A thematic analysis. Antibiotics 11(5):639.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial resistance, global health, interventions, public health, resilience, Stewardship, success factors